Leading Supplier of Stainless Steel 416
Specifications of Grade 416 Stainless Steel also equivalent to
SUS416 | SS416 | UNS S41600
|Grade||UNS No||Old British||Euronorm||Swedish SS||Japanese JIS|
Properties of SUS416 Stainless Steel
Stainless Steel 416 is a free-machining basic straight chromium high hardenability martensitic stainless steel with excellent machinability, reasonable strength and corrosion resistance.
Generally supplied either hardened and tempered in the tensile range 550 – 700 Mpa (condition P) Brinell range 152 – 207, or in the annealed condition with a maximum Brinell hardness of 207. Characterised by excellent machinability, non-galling and non-seizing properties due to its higher sulphur content which has the effect of lowering its corrosion resistance. It is, however, resistant to mild corrosive atmospheres, freshwater, steam, organic materials, many mild acids and petroleum products, coupled with reasonable strength in the hardened and tempered condition.
SUS416 due to its excellent hardenability is capable of being through hardened up to Rc40 depending upon carbon content and section size. Small sections can be air-cooled and larger sections oil quenched for maximum through hardness.
Prehardened and tempered SUS416 will also respond readily to nitriding achieving a typical surface hardness of over Rc65. The nitriding process, however, reduces the corrosion resistance and is therefore not generally recommended except for critical applications where the benefit outweighs all other considerations.
Chemical Composition for SUS 416 Stainless Steel
|Chemical Composition||Min. %||Max. %|
* Nickel and Molybdenum are addition optional.
Mechanical Properties for SS416 Stainless Steel
|Tempering Temperature (°C)||Tensile Strength (MPa)||Yield Strength|
0.2% Proof (MPa)
(% in 50mm)
|Impact Charpy V (J)|
|Condition T **||758||586||18||248 - 302||-|
# Tempering of this steel at temperatures of 400 to 580°C should be avoided due to low impact resistance.
Elevated Temperature Properties
While ss 416 displays a reasonable resistance to scaling in continuous service up to 650 oC, it does however experience a substantial drop in tensile strength, creep and stress rupture strength at relatively low working temperatures.
It is also susceptible to hot cracking due to its high sulphur content.
NB. High temperature use is therefore not generally recommended.
Low Temperature Properties
416SS is not recommended for use at sub-zero temperatures due to a substantial drop in impact properties consistent with most steels other than the austenitic steel types.
Corrosion Resistance in UNS S41600
S41600 due to its higher sulphur content has lower resistance to all corrosion types than grade SUS410, and indeed all of the 400 series martensitic stainless steels.
Its selection therefore is generally based upon its excellent machinability coupled with its lower corrosion resistance capabilities.
- It has optimum corrosion resistance in the hardened and tempered condition and is not therefore recommended for use in the annealed condition.
It is most important that oxygen is always allowed to circulate freely on all stainless steel surfaces to ensure that a chrome oxide film is always present to protect it. If this is not the case, rusting will occur as with other types of non stainless steels.
For optimum corrosion resistance surfaces must be free of scale and foreign particles.
Finished parts should be passivated.
Heat Treatment of X12CrS13 (SUS416)
Heat uniformerly to 650 oC – 750 oC as required, hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section.
*Soak as required, cool in air.
Heat to 820 oC – 900 oC, hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section. *Soak as required. Cool in furnace.
Heat to 950 oC – 1020 oC, hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section. *Soak as required.
Quench in oil or air cool. Temper immediately while still hand warm.
Prior to nitriding, the chrome oxide film which protects the surface must be broken down by pickling or fine sand blasting.
Nitriding is carried out at 500 oC – 550 oC followed by slow cooling (no quench) reducing the problem of distortion. Parts can therefore be machined to near final size, leaving a grinding tolerance only. Always ensure that the tempering temperature employed during the initial heat treatment was higher than the nitriding temperature otherwise the core strength will be affected.
Tempering (Condition P)
Heat to 650 oC – 750 oC as required, hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section. *Soak as required. Cool in air.
S41600 can of course be tempered at much lower temperatures, producing much higher tensile strengths, but with subsequent lower impact properties.
- Tempering however within the range 400 oC – 580 oC should be avoided due to the brittleness, resulting in a considerable reduction in impact properties and loss of corrosion resistance.
*Heating temperatures, rate of heating, cooling and soaking times will vary due to factors such as work piece size/shape, also furnace type employed, quenching medium and work piece transfer facilities etc.
Please consult your heat treater for best results.
Machining for 416 Type Stainless Steel
416 Type Stainless Steel was developed as a free machining grade and has by far the best machinability of all the 400 series martensitic stainless steels.
It also has much better machinability than grade 303 free machining austenitic stainless steel and all operations such as turning, drilling, broaching, tapping, milling, reaming and threading etc. can be readily carried out as per machine manufacturers recommendations for suitable tool type, feeds and speeds.
Welding for 416 Grade Stainless Steel
416 Grade Stainless Steel is not generally recommended for welding in either the annealed or hardened and tempered condition, due to its high sulphur content resulting in hot cracking or its hardening capability resulting in cold cracking.
If it is really necessary to weld in either condition the following procedure may be taken as a guide only.
Welding electrodes or rods should be low hydrogen types 410 or *similar when strength is required or post-weld hardening and tempering, otherwise an austenitic stainless electrode or rod such as 308 or *similar may be used to give a more ductile weld, when strength is not so critical and post-weld annealing is not possible or intended.
Pre-heat at 200 oC – 300 oC and keep heat input to a minimum to reduce dilution of sulphur and filler metal. On completion of welding cool slowly as possible until hand warm and as required:
Post-weld sub-critical anneal at 650 oC – 750 oC or full anneal and harden and temper as required.
** Please consult your welding consumables supplier.
Our Sales and Supplier Network in SUS416 / SS416 / Grade 416 Stainless Steel :
With over 15 years of experience and strong global sourcing networking in the market, we are proud to be the UNS S41600 Stainless Steel Supplier and Exporter to :
- Australia, Pakistan, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, China, Vietnam, Belgium, Japan, South Korea, Philippines, France, United Kingdom, Indonesia, Thailand, Hong Kong, China, Sweden, United States, Dubai, Finland, Brunei, Germany.
Besides, we have the full range of Stainless Steel sheets, Stainless Steel Round Bar, Stainless Steel Rods, Stainless Steel Plate which consists of
– 300 Series Stainless Steel : SUS304, SUS304L, SUS309, SUS310, SUS316Ti, SUS317, SUS321, SUS347
– 400 Series Stainless Steel : SUS403, SUS410, SUS420, SUS431, SUS440C, SUS630, SUS904L
– Nitronic 30, Nitronic 50, Nitronic 60
– Super Duplex S32750, S32760